Cnidium seeds References

Source materials that are used or consulted in the preparation of this Cnidium seeds guide.

Jacqueline L. Longe, The G A L E Encyclopedia of Alternative Medicine, 2004.

Editors of Time-Life Books. The Drug and Natural Medicine Advisor. Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1997.


Cai, J., B. Yu, G. Xu, et al. "Studies on the quality of fructus Cnidii-comparison of antibacterial action." Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 16, no. 8 (1991): 451-453, 510.

Chen, Z. and X. Duan. "Mechanism of the antiasthmatic effect of total coumarins in the fruit of Cnidium monnieri (L.) Cuss." Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 15, no. 5 (1990): 304-305, 320.

Liao, J. M., Q. A. Zhu, H. J. Lu, et al. "Effects of total coumarins of Cnidium monnieri on bone density and bio-mechanics of glucocorticoids-induced osteoporosis in rats." Chung Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao 18, no. 6 (1997): 519-521.

Tohda, C, Y. Kakihara, K. Komatsu, et al. "Inhibitory effects of methanol extracts of herbal medicines on substance P-induced itch-scratch response." Biol Pharm Bull 23, no. 5 (2000): 599-601.

Xie, H., Q. N. Li, L. F. Huang, et al. "Effect of total coumarins from dried fruits of Cnidium monnieri on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rats." Chung Kuo Yao Li Hsueh Pao 15, no. 4 (1994): 341-344.


Astringent - An agent that helps to contract tissue and prevent the secretion of internal body fluids such as blood or mucus. Astringents are typically used to treat external wounds or to prevent bleeding from the nose or throat.

Eczema - A condition characterized by inflamed, itchy skin. Eczema may also involve oozing, crusting, and scaling.

Essential oil - A term describing a wide variety of concentrated plant-derived oils. They are often used to make soaps and perfumes, as well as being used extensively in natural medical remedies.

Osteoporosis - An age-related disease in which bones become fragile and prone to debilitating fractures.

Ringworm - A fungal skin infection that predominantly affects children. The condition is characterized by reddish, scaly rings on the skin.

Scabies - A contagious rash caused by the Sar-coptes scabiei mite, which burrows into the upper layer of the skin in order to lay eggs. Scabies is characterized by intense itching.

Vaginitis - An inflammation of the mucous membrane that lines the interior of the vagina. It often results from a Candida or other fungal infection, and is accompanied by pain, itching, and discharge.


American Botanical Council. P.O. Box 144345, Austin, TX 78714-4345.


OnHealth. MEDLINE.

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